Biophotons and Visual Phenomena
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Говардовский, В. И. (2020). Biophotons and Visual Phenomena. Российский физиологический журнал им. И. М. Сеченова, 106(8), 927–951. извлечено от


The review considers modern un-orthodox ideas on the origin of visual phenomena of apparently various nature (photoreceptors’ dark light, negative afterimages, and various sorts of phosphenes such as electrophosphenes, magnetophosphenes, radiation phosphenes, and mechanophosphenes). The new framework provides a unifying explanation for all the phenomena that are suggested to be a perception of biophotons (ultra-weak photon emission, UPE) that are generated mostly by lipid peroxidation (LPO) during routine cellular metabolism. In the paper, the biochemical mechanism of biophotons’ generation is briefly explained. It is concluded that the outer segments of retinal photoreceptors provide an excellent substrate for LPO thus being a good candidate for UPE production. Experiments show that the retina in complete darkness indeed emits an extremely low level of bioluminescence. Yet its intensity is two orders of magnitude below the dark-adapted visual threshold, and over 100 times smaller than necessary to generate the photoreceptors’ dark noise. UPE also cannot be a source of afterimages because its intensity is far too low. Besides, the background light necessary to produce a negative afterimage is actually supplied by the ambient light that passes into the eye through closed lids. All other sorts of phosphenes attributed to UPE cannot be produced by biophotons since it is known for at least 200 years that the phosphenes are seen in daylight, that is, at the intensities billions of times brighter than the intensity of UPE. Thus, the new explanatory framework for all visual phenomena based on UPE should be discarded in its entirety.

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